Last year, upstream added code to Dolphin to disallow running it as root: https://cgit.kde.org/dolphin.git/commit/?id=0bdd8e0b0516555c6233fdc7901e9b417cf89791
This was in preparation for PolicyKit integration that would have made running as root unnecessary. Unfortunately, the PolicyKit integration task too much longer than anticipated, and is still not done.
It was a bit rude to delete the run-as-root feature before its replacement was actually implemented. It's probably not worth reverting the change upstream since the Policykit integration task really does look to be wrapping up, but it's certainly not going to land in time for Bionic.
I'm recommending that we patch the version of Dolphin we ship in Bionic we ship with to undo https://cgit.kde.org/dolphin.git/commit/?id=0bdd8e0b0516555c6233fdc7901e9b417cf89791, so users are able to run Dolphin as root if they want to. We can remove the patch once the PolicyKit integration lands in 18.10 (or whenever).